The A – Z of Textile Terminology

Abrasian Resistance
The ability of a fibre or fabric to withstand surface wear and rubbing.

Absorbency
The ability of a fabric to take in moisture. An important property for towels, it affects characteristics such as skin comfort, shrinkage and water repellency.

Acetate
Man-made fibre in which the fibre forming substance is cellulose acetate, for example, flax, jute, sisal, cotton, wool, cashmere, silk.

Acrylic
Acrylic is a man-made fibre with a soft feel resembling wool. Acrylic products are easy to wash and dry and are non-allergenic, moth-resistant and durable.

Air Jet Spinning
A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibres around a core stream of fibres with compressed air.

Antibacterial
Refers to fabric that is either chemically treated or whose fibre is created with an antibacterial agent. An antibacterial treatment makes the fabric resistant to micro-organisms and inhibits their growth.

Applique
This is the technique of embellishment in which fabrics are stretched onto a base fabric to create a design and texture.

Baffle-Box Construction
Construction in which fabric walls are sewn in between the top and bottom of a quilt or comforter. This allows for better loft and more even distribution of fill. It also prevents fill from bunching and shifting, helping to keep it in place.

Bamboo
A natural textile made from the pulp of bamboo grass. Bamboo fabric is light, strong and known for its sustainability and good wicking properties. Bamboo is often blended with cotton to create items such as throws and blankets.

Baroque
A design style originating in Italy in the early 17th century, characterised by bold, classical forms, highly ornate and often with a clever use of light and shadow to suggest movement and three dimensionality.

Basketweave
A plain weave variation in which multiple warp or filling yarns are treated as one woven unit. Basketweave yarns are laid flat and maintain a parallel relationship.

Bath Mat
An absorbent cloth piece used to stand on when coming out of the bath or shower. Bath mats are thicker than regular towels and come in a variety of sizes.

Bath Sheet
This towel is larger than a standard bath towel, ideal for men. 86 x 160 cm.

Bath Towel
Often referred to as a queen bath towel, this is the most common towel size. 70 x 140 cm.

Batik
Unique design or fabric pattern created when some of the dyes are prevented from penetrating the fabric during the dyeing process. Can be repeated several times to create multicoloured and blended patterns.
The term can be used to describe either the resulting fabric design or the dyeing method itself.

Battenberg
Style of lace.

Batting
Cotton, wool or synthetic fibre used as a fill or an inner lining for quilts.

Bed In A Bag
A pre-assembled set that typically includes a queen comforter, two standard pillowcases, two European pillowcases and a filled decorative cushion.

Bed Runner
Also known as a bed scarf, a decorative fabric accessory that drapes across the bottom of a quilt cover set for a decorative effect.

Bed Skirt
Another name for a valance. The quilted piece of fabric that surrounds the base of the bed.

Bedspread Skirted
This style of bedspread is only quilted on the top of the bed and has a skirt that drops to the floor all the way around to hide the mattress and base of the bed. Logan & Mason skirted bedspreads also have reverse shams to cover the pillows.

Bedspread Tailored
Tailored bedspreads are a good option for smaller spaces as they fit very neatly to the bed and have no hanging fabric that might be tripped over. Tailored bedspreads have a full width reverse sham.

Bias
Fabric cut on a 45 degree angle to the direction of the warp or weft. Fabric cut on the bias has maximum strength.

Binding
A narrow length of fabric that has been sewn on to cover seams or unfinished edges. Referred to as ‘self-binding’ when in the same colour and fabric as the base colour. Contrasting binding is of a different colour, pattern or fabric.

Bleaching – Optical Brighteners
Products with bluing agents or whiteners are not recommended on coloured linens, as they may progressively fade the colours.

Bleaching -Skin Products
Certain skin and hair products that contain oxidizing agents (eg: lotions used for acne), may cause discolouration of sheets and towels. If you use such personal products, cover you pillow with a white
pillowcase or white towel.

Blend
The combination of two or more types of fibres to create a specific weave. For example, cotton and polyester are often blended to combine the easy care qualities of polyester with the luxurious softness and
breathability of cotton.

Boucle
Boucle is a novelty yarn which is looped and crimped to produce a bubbled surface.

Boutique Cushion
A decorative cushion measuring 30 x 30 cm.

Box Pleat
A pleat consisting of two parallel creases facing opposite directions and forming a raised section in between.

Braid
A narrow textile band, often used as trimming or binding, formed by plaiting several strands of yarn. The fabric is formed by interlacing the yarns diagonally to the production axis of the material.

Breakfast Cushion
A decorative cushion measuring 35 x 48 cm.

Broadcloth
Tightly woven fabric, usually made from cotton or a cotton blend, commonly used in quilting.

Brocade
A rich fabric, usually silk, woven with a raised pattern, typically with gold or silver thread.

Broderie Anglaise
Broderie Anglaise is the French term for English Embroidery. It is a style incorporating features of embroidery, cutwork and needle lace.

Brunch Cushion
A decorative cushion measuring 30 x 40 cm.

Brushed Cotton
Cotton fabric that has been finished so as to raise the surface fibres.

Cabled Yarn
A yarn formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns.

Calendering
A mechanical finishing process for fabrics used to produce special effects, such as high lustre, glazing, moire and embossed effects.

Canvas
A strong, durable, closely woven cotton fabric.

Carding
Method of cleaning fibres by separating them and laying them parallel.

Combed Cotton
Combed cotton is an extremely soft version of cotton made by specially treating the cotton fibres before they are spun into yarn.

Cashmere
Comes from the inner coat hair of an Asian Cashmere Goat.

Cassette Walled Construction
This is the sign of a premium quality quilt. The quilt is divided up into individual pockets, each with four walls and exactly the same amount of filling is blown into each one. This ensures that during both use and
washing, the filling does not move around the quilt, ensuring an even distribution of warmth.

Channel Stitch
Stitching pattern in which rows are stitched along the length of a comforter to create channels that encase the fill. Also known as Karo Stitch.

Chenille
A yarn with a fuzzy pile. Chenille has a velvet, caterpillar-like appearance and the term is derived from the French word for caterpillar.

Chevron
A regular, repeated zig-zag pattern formed by reversing the twill in the weaving process. Also known as Herringbone.

Chiffon
Lightweight, sheer, plain weave, silk-like fabric.

Coating
The application of a semi-liquid material such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride or polyurethane to one or both sides of the textile material. Once the coating has dried (cured) it forms a bond with the fabric.

Colourfastness
A dyed fabric’s ability to resist fading due to conditions such as washing and sun exposure.

Combed Yarns
The process of combing yarns produces premium threads that are extra strong, fine and smooth. This is done by removing short fibres and all wastage from the material, ensuring only the longest, finest staple fibres remain within the yarn.

Comforter Set
Logan & Mason comforter sets are made from printed polyester of a cotton/polyester blend with a polyester fill. The quilting pattern is designed specifically to lock the fill in place and prevent uneven movement of the wadding. Our comforters are OSFA and each set includes two standard pillowcases.

Corduroy
Medium-weight cotton fabric with length-wise cords or ridges.

Cotton
Cotton is a natural, cellulose seed hair fibre, obtained from the seedpod of the cotton plant. It is used for bed linen as one of its main characteristics is its ability to allow skin to ‘breathe’.

Cotton-Rich
Blended fabric with a higher percentage of cotton to give the fabric more of cotton’s natural characteristics, such as softness and breathability.

Coverlet
A thin, decorative bed covering with a thin layer of wadding. Ideal as a decorative addition to your bed or as a lightweight bed cover.

Crochet
A knitted handicraft in which yarn is made up into a patterned fabric by means of a hooked needle. Ornate and decorative, it is usually associated with a vintage or homespun appeal.

Crocking
The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric as the result of insufficient dye penetration of fixation, the use of improper dyes or dyeing methods or insufficient washing and treatment after the dyeing operation. Crocking can occur under either wet or dry conditions.

Crushed Fabrics
Crushed fabrics are those treated with heat, moisture and pressure in finishing to distort pile formation.

Damask
This jacquard fabric is usually made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk or blends and features a patterned finish. Often found in the finest linens, Damask was originally a rich silk fabric with woven floral designs made in China and introduced into Europe through Damascus, from which it derived its name.

Decorator Cushion
A decorative cushion measuring 30 x 50 cm.

Denier
The weight, in grams, of 9,000 metres of yarn. The lower the denier number the finer the size of yarn, and the higher the number the larger the size of yarn.

Denim
Denim is a yarn-dyed cotton cloth woven in a warp-faced twill, usually with a dyed warp and a natural weft.

Dobby
This type of loom creates small, geometric figures often woven into fabric as a regular pattern. Originally, a ‘Dobby Boy’ sat on top of the loom and drew up warp threads to form a pattern, a job now performed by
machines. The term ‘dobby’ refers to the type of loom that is used to weave small, geometric patterns onto fabric.

Down
The soft, light clusters found under the feathers of geese or ducks that trap warm air next to the bird’s skin. Each cluster has thousands of soft, puffy filaments that extend outward from a central quill, creating a three-dimensional structure for maximum loft and insulation. These clusters trap heat and air, which provide insulation whilst letting you breathe. The higher the down count, the lighter the quilt.

Down Alternative
Synthetic fill with insulating properties similar to down.

Drape
A term to describe the way a fabric falls while it hangs; the suppleness and ability of a fabric to form graceful configurations.

Drop
Commonly used in valance and bed skirt measurements, the drop refers to the length of the skirt measured from the box spring to the floor.

Duck Fabric
Duck is a broad term for a wide range of plain weave fabrics. Duck is usually made of cotton. The terms ‘canvas’ and ‘duck’ are often interchangeable, but canvas is often used to refer to heavier constructions.

Duck Feather
This type of feather is often used in home furnishings due to its soft, warm and comfortable properties.

Duvet Cover
A fabric shell that fits over a quilt. An opening at one end lets you insert the quilt and close the duvet using buttons, ties or zippers. Protective, decorative and easy to remove, duvet covers are a great way to preserve a quilt and change the look of your bedding by simply changing the cover. Also known as a Quilt Cover.

Dyeing
A process of colouring fibres, yarns or fabrics with either a natural or synthetic dye. Dyeing methods can include: Pad Dyeing, Pressure Dyeing, Skein Dyeing and Yarn Dyeing.

Easy Fit Stretch Over Valances
The easy fit valance stretches over the top of your mattress base and snaps into place. No more back breaking lifting trying to slide your valance between mattress and base, the elastic provides the flexibility to be able to add or change your valance with a minimum of fuss.

Egyptian Cotton
Egyptian Cotton is a fine, lustrous, long-staple cotton that produces a soft, high-quality fabric. Although historically all Egyptian Cotton comes from Egypt, today ‘Egyptian’ Cotton is also produced in other
countries. It still complies with the original Egyptian standards of quality, including a 11/4 to 2 inch staple, compared, for example, with Pima Cotton’s 7/8-inch staple. Be aware that the type of cotton presents
another area in which labels can be misleading – some may say Egyptian Cotton, but in fact may contain only one percent. Look for labels that say 100% or pure Egyptian Cotton.

Embellished
A design or feature to enhance a finished fabric. This is done in multiple ways including applique, embroidery, beads or buttons.

Embossing
Embossing is a process which produces a raised design or pattern in relief. The design is pressed into fabric or leather by passing it through hot, engraved rollers. Velvet or plush is embossed by shearing the pile to different levels or by pressing parts flat.

Embroidery
Embroidery is decorative, ornamental needlework stitches used to dress up a base fabric. Embroidery can be machine woven or done by hand.

End
An individual warp yarn. A warp is composed of a number of ends.

European Pillowcase
A large, square pillow, cushion or pillowcase measuring 65 x 65 cm.

Eyelet
Type of decorative cutwork in which the edges of a small hole are finished with embroidery.

Faux Silk
Man-made fabric designed to look and feel like silk but with easy care properties.

Faux Suede
Man-made fabric designed to look and feel like suede but with easy care properties.

Feathers
Plumage from waterfowl, such as goose or duck, used as filling material.

Fill
The material used to stuff items such as comforters, pillows or quilts. Examples of some fibres used as fill are feather, cotton, microfibre and polyester.

Fill Weight
Refers to the amount of material used to create the fill.

Finishing
All the processes through which fabric is passed after bleaching, dyeing or printing in preparation for the market to use.

Fitted Sheet
Also known as a ‘bottom sheet’. The fitted sheet is shaped and elasticised around the edges to fit snugly onto the mattress. A fitted sheet is an ideal protective covering and makes fitting quick and easy.

Flange
A flange is an additional decorative fabric border around a quilt cover or pillowcase usually about 5cm wide.

Flannelette
Cotton is the most common thread for flannelette. Brushing of the fabric results in a very soft, fuzzy feel. It is cosy and warm yet light and breathable, making it popular during the colder months.

Flat Sheet
Also known as the ‘top sheet’. This is placed on top of the fitted sheet and then tucked under the sides and bottom of the mattress.

Flax
Comes from the stem or stalk of the flax plant; when flax is woven, it produces linen.

Fleece
Fabric with a soft pile in imitation of a sheep’s furry coat.

Frog Toggles
A decorative fastener often created from cord, woven into an Oriental pattern.

Gingham
Gingham is a yarn-dyed fabric woven into a series of simple patterns in two or more colours. Typical gingham styles include checks, plaids and stripes.

Greige Fabric
An unfinished fabric just off the loom or knitting machine.

Grosgrain
A firm, tightly woven fabric with a pronounced cross rib. The term often describes ribbon but may be full width fabric as well.

GSM
GSM is an acronym for ‘grams per square metre’, a standard measure of the weight of certain fabrics, used commonly for comparing towels and bed linen.

Gusset
Insert that adds strength to edges and corners, for example, a seam.

Hand
Term for how a fabric feels to the touch, for example, soft, silky or crisp.

Hand Stitch
Sewing done by hand instead of a sewing machine.

Hand Towel
Logan & Mason hand towels are generously sized at 50 x 70cm. Private Collection, Florence Broadhurst and Royal Doulton hand towels are 50 x 75 cm.

Hemstitch
A hemstitch is used to create a decorative open lace pattern in fabric. Often looking like a complex series of decorative gaps in the weave.

Herringbone
Herringbone is a twill weave that reverses direction across the fabric to form a chevron.

Hypo-Allergenic
Simply, it means an item with little likelihood of causing an allergic response.

Ikat
Fabric that is tie-dyed prior to weaving. The pattern ranges from simple to intricate.

Jacobean
Jacobean patterns refer to the floral scroll designs popularly appearing on fabrics during the reign of King James I of England during the early 17th Century.

Jacquard
The term ‘jacquard’ refers to the attachment on the loom which enables a huge range of designs and patterns to be created. This attachment provides individual control of the yarns being woven, therefore
patterns of almost any type or complexity can be made, creating a premium product.

Japara
This is a very finely woven but durable fabric mainly used as covers for quilts and pillows to keep the feathers from protruding through the fabric.

Jersey Knit
Commonly used for sheet sets and quilt cover sets; is also known as T-Shirt cotton for its soft, shirt-like feel.

Jute
Bast fibre that grows in the stem section of a plant in India; yellow and brown in colour, coarse and harsh.

King Pillow
A king pillow is a larger size pillow designed to fit across a king size bed. Two normal pillows are too short to fit across a king bed. Logan & Mason king pillows are 50 x 90cm with pillowcases available in 5 colours.

Knitting
A method of constructing fabric by interlocking series of loops of one or more yarns. Knitting types include: Warp Knitting and Weft Knitting.

Lace
Ornamental openwork fabric, made from a variety of designs by intricate manipulation of the fibre by machine or hand.

Latex
A well known natural rubber material used in pillows, which benefit from its highly flexible, non-allergenic and long lasting properties.

Linen
Linen is a strong, lustrous yarn made from flax fibre.

Lining
A backing fabric used for opacity or strength.

Loft
Refers to the thickness of a pillow, quilt, comforter or fabric.

Long Cushion
A decorative cushion measuring 30 x 60cm.

Long Staple
The quality of the cotton depends on the length of the individual fibres, or staples – the longer the staple, the better the quality of the cotton.

Loom
Machines for weaving fabric by interlacing a series of vertical parallel yarns (the warp) with a series of horizontal parallel yarns (the filling). The warp yarns from a beam pass through the heddles and reed, and the filling is passed through the ‘shed’ of warp threads by means of a shuttle, or other device and is settled into place by the reed and lay. The primary distinction between different types of looms is the manner of filling insertion.

Low Twist
A cotton spinning process which, by working the fibre less, makes it softer and more absorbent.

Lyocell
Lyocell is a cellulose fibre that is softer than silk, cooler than linen, more absorbent than cotton, naturally wrinkle resistant and environmentally friendly.

Matelasse
A soft, double cloth or compound fabric with a quilted surface. It has two warps that, in weaving, achieve a puckered or quilted effect. In French, ‘matelasse’ means ‘to quilt’ or ‘to pad’.

Mattress Protector
Designed to safeguard your valuable mattress. Mattress protectors go over the mattress and under the fitted sheet and are machine washable and non-allergenic. Logan & Mason mattress protectors all have a fitted stretch wall to suit mattress depths up to 60cm.

Mattress Topper
A mattress topper is a thickly wadded pad, usually filled with polyester, microfibre or foam, designed to lie atop a mattress. Its function is to provide a layer of comfort and warmth between the user and the mattress. It is of particular benefit when the existing mattress is worn or uncomfortable.

Memory Foam
A dense polyurethane foam that contours to the shape of an object pressing upon it, used especially in mattresses and pillows to provide evenly distributed support.

Mercerize
Treatment used to shrink fibres and thereby increase a fabric’s strength and lustre.

Merino Wool
Merino is a breed of sheep prized for its wool which is regarded as the finest and softest of any sheep. Soft, yet durable, merino wool is prized by designers and textile manufacturers for its warmth and versatility.

Microfibre
Microfibre is a revolutionary polyester fibre. As its name suggests, it is incredibly fine (0.01 denier, compared to a strand of human hair at 20 denier). Because it is so fine it traps a lot of air, creating a filling that’s
exceptionally warm, soft and light, so in fact it feels like a down duvet but because it’s synthetic it’s non-allergenic, making it perfect for allergy sufferers and children.

Mitre Corners
Mitred refers to a border or a flange that is matched in the corners with a diagonal seam.

Modal
Often used for towels, this fibre is made from beech wood, it feels very soft to the touch and it is more absorbent and dries faster than 100% cotton.

Mohair
Mohair is long, white, lustrous hair obtained from the Angora goat. Mohair is one of the world’s oldest textile fibres and is renowned for its durability and natural properties which include unique lustre, lightweight and excellent crease resistance.

Natural Fibre
A class name for various genera of fibres of animal (wool and silk) or vegetable (cotton, flax and jute).

Neck Roll (Bolster Cushion)
A smaller, cylindrical cushion. This can be extremely useful for stiff neck sufferers as an additional lumbar support underneath the neck when lying on a bed.

Non-Allergenic
Non-allergenic describes a fibre that doesn’t (under normal circumstances) cause an allergic reaction, ie: synthetics.

Nylon
Nylon is a generic term for synthetic polyamide fibres.

Oeko-Tex Certified
Fabric that has been tested for the presence of harmful substances by the OEKO-TEX Standard 100, an independent testing and certification system for textile raw materials, intermediate and end products at all stages of production.

Ombre
A French term meaning ‘shaded’ or ‘variegated’, usually refers to a yarn or thread changing gradually from one colour to another.

Organza
Thin, plain weave, sheer fabric. Made of silk, polyester or nylon.

OSFA
One Size Fits All.

Ottoman
A medium to heavy fabric with horizontal ribs.

Overstitching
A decorative stitch applied after item has been constructed to form part of the design.

Oxford Border
A simple and elegant tailored flange that frames pillowcases, quilt covers or other bed linen.

Paste Print
A printing technique which leaves the print on the surface of the fabric. White is often used in this way to highlight areas of a design.

Patchwork
Needlework in which small pieces of cloth in different designs, colours or textures are sewn together.

Pattern Repeat
A pattern repeat is the distance between any given point in a design to where that exact point is repeated again.

Percale
A fabric woven from cotton or blends with a thread count of at least 225. Originating from the Persian word ‘pargalah’, percale is a smooth fabric of especially high quality and is generally less likely to pill than other types of woven fabric. Percale has a soft, silky feel which makes it ideal for bed linen.

Pick-Stitching
A line of simple running stitches that catch only a few threads of the fabric, showing very little of the thread on the outer side of the cloth.

Piece-Dyeing
Piece-dyeing is a process of dyeing the fabric in the piece after it has been woven.

Pigment
Pigment is an insoluble powdered colouring agent carried in a liquid binder and printed or padded onto the surface of a cloth.

Pile
The surface effect on a fabric that is formed by loops or tufts of yarn or fibre that stand on end.

Pill
A pill is a fuzzy ball caused by the rolling up of abraded surface fibres. All sheets are treated to minimise pilling.

Pillow Protector
Simple covers to cover and protect a valuable pillow before it’s placed into a pillowcase.

Pillowcase
This is a removable, washable cover for the pillow used directly for sleeping on. Most often made from cotton or a cotton blend, it usually has a flap of fabric, sometimes buttoned, to help enclose the pillow. Sometimes called a Pillow Slip.

Pillow Sham
A decorative pillow cover. Unlike regular pillowcases, pillow shams are mainly decorative and are used to add texture or colour when dressing the bed. Not usually directly used for sleeping on.

Pillowtop
A pillowtop mattress is generally defined as a mattress with several inches of additional padding sewn into the top. This padding can consist of regular foam, memory foam, latex, fibre fill, cotton, wool.

Pima Cotton
Soft, medium staple-length type of American-bred Egyptian cotton.

Pintuck
A type of finish applied to some of our bed linen designs. Folds of fabric are neatly folded, pressed and stitched into small pleats.

Piping
Piping refers to decorative cords used at edges of an item. Piping is usually fabric-covered and is attached to an item by inserting it through a seam.

Pique
Cotton or blended fabric of medium weight with an embossed check-like pattern.

Plain Weave
The most basic of weaves; features on thread over one thread.

Pleat
A fold in cloth made by doubling the material upon itself and then pressing or stitching into place.

Plisse
Lightweight, plain weave, puckered-striped, cotton-type fabric. Slightly resembles a seersucker.

Ply
Ply refers to the number of yarns twisted together to make a composite yarn.

Pocket Weave
A jacquard double-layered fabric with several warps. The design is created with both warps and fillings.

Polyester
Polyester is a man-made fibre that is easily blended with other fibres to enhance a fabric. Some of the qualities polyester can add to a fabric are crease resistance, shape retention, quick drying, resilience and minimum care.

Polyurethane
A type of synthetic, flexible foam.

Pre-Washed
Fabric that has been washed before being sewn to reduce the likelihood of shrinkage.

Print
A fabric’s ‘picture’ or visual design. Created using various colour transfer methods to form a pattern that transfers to the fabric.

Quilting
Created by placing a layer of fill between two layers of fabric. It’s all held in place by a consistent stitching pattern.

Quilt Cover
Removable, washable cover for a quilt to be used on a bed. Usually features a buttoned flap at one end to help enclose the quilt. Also known as a Doona Cover or Duvet Cover.

Ramie
Fine, absorbent fibre that is most resistant to mildew and rotting of all plant fibres.

Rayon
Rayon is a generic term for a man-made fibre derived from regenerated cellulose. Also referred to as Viscose.

Rococo
A design style characterised by elaborate detail, smallness of scale, delicacy of colour, freedom of brushwork and the selection of playful subjects.

Reactive Print
A printing technique used on cellulose fibres, such as cotton, where the print reacts with the fibre to create the design. This means that the fibres remain much softer as the dye is not sitting on the surface of the fabric.

Ric-Rac
A narrow, zig-zag ribbon.

Ruched
Ruched refers to the process by which a fabric is gathered to achieve a voluptuous effect.

Ruffle
A gathered fabric often seen in bedskirts and sometimes as the flange on shams and decorative pillows. Quantity of fabric used determines fullness.

Sateen Weave
Yarns with a mellow lustre such as cotton are ideal for this type of weave. A sateen weave is distinct because of its lustrous appearance, this is created by weaving 4 or more floating weft yarns over 1 warp yarn to create a glossy surface.

Satin Fabric
A very smooth fabric which can be made from silk, cotton or synthetic fibres. Satin is very shiny with a matte reverse side.

Satin Stitch
A continuous series of straight, uniform, raised stitches very close together which give a satin effect. Used as a finishing detail around Oxford bordered pillowcases and on other bed linen.

Scalloped Edge
A stitched border with continuous curves.

Seersucker
A fabric with puckered stripes, made by weaving with some tight warp yarns and some loose warp yarns so that the loose warp yarns become crinkled.

Self-Stripe
A stripe which is created by weave, rather than colour.

Sequin
A small, decorative flat reflective disk with a hole for attaching to the fabric. May be made of metal, plastic or shell.

Sheer
Sheer refers to very thin, transparent or semi-opaque fabric.

Sheet Set
A typical sheet set comes with a flat sheet, fitted sheet and two standard pillowcases (one pillowcase for single and king single bed sizes).

Sheets – Deluxe
Logan & Mason deluxe sheets have a 60cm wall on the fitted sheet to accommodate the very deep walls of some pillowtop beds.

Sheets – Mega
Logan & Mason mega sheets have a 50cm wall on the fitted sheet to accommodate the very deep walls of some pillowtop beds.

Shrinkage
Shrinkage is the contraction of a fibre, yarn or fabric after washing and drying. Most products made of natural fibres will shrink 4-6%.

Silk
Silk is a natural protein fibre produced from the cocoon of wild or cultivated silkworms.

Silk Screen Printing
A printing technique whereby mesh and engraved rollers are used to transfer ink onto a surface.

Skirt Drop
Skirt drop is the length of a valance from the top of the base to the bottom of the valance.

Slub
A yarn defect consisting of a lump, or thick place on the yarn caused by lint, or small lengths of yarn adhering to it.

Smocking
A style of embroidery used to hold gathered fabric in even folds.

Split Corners
On a valance, or bed skirt, corners at the foot of the bed, from the platform to the hem, constructed without seams to create an opening to accommodate bed posts. Used on beds without posts, the edges at the corners overlap to conceal the opening.

Stone Washing
When fabric is washed with abrasives to produce a worn or faded appearance.

Suede Velour
A pile fabric, which is an alternative to velvet. This usually has a napped or brushed finish.

Super King
Super king quilts and quilt covers are 270 x 240cm (265 x 210cm in New Zealand). This size has been developed to generously cover a king bed. With the increase in deep wall mattresses, the next size up in quilt in often advisable to cover the sides of the mattress.

Supima
Derived from the term ‘superior pima’, Supima cotton has a very long fibre that provides a smoother feel than most types of cotton. Only certain manufacturers and retailers are granted license to use the name.

Synthetic
Man-made material.

Taffeta
A plain weave fabric with a fine, smooth, crisp hand with a lustrous appearance. Taffeta fabric usually has a fine cross rib made by using a heavier filling yarn than warp yarn.

Tapestry
A piece of thick fabric with pictures or designs formed by weaving coloured weft threads or by embroidering.

Terry Cloth
Medium-weight, soft, cotton-type fabric with low twist yarns forming surface loops.

Texture
A term describing the surface effect of a fabric such as dull, lustrous, woolly, stiff, soft, fine, coarse etc.

Thread Count
Thread count is simply a measure of how many threads – warp (lengthwise) and weft (width wise) – are woven into one square cm of fabric. While improvements in spinning and milling technologies have pushed up the numbers, thread counts above 500 are something of a misnomer. Very high thread counts generally entail the use of a ‘plied’ yarn – one that is produced by twisting together gossamer-fine threads. For marketing purposes, it is not uncommon to count the twisted yarn as double and, for example, describe fabric with 250 individual four-ply yarns in a square cm as a 1,000 thread count product. Thread counts aren’t the be-all and end-all when it comes to sheets you love to touch. Softness depends more on the quality of the fibre, which is why a 200 thread count fine cotton sheet set can have a softer ‘hand’ or feel than a 400 thread count sheet that uses an inferior grade of cotton or twisted thread.

Throw
Similar to but smaller than a blanket, a throw is lightweight and one size. It can be functional or decorative.

Ticking
Closely woven, sturdy, durable fabric often used for mattresses and pillow coverings.

Toile
Design featuring a white or off-white background with a repeated, frequently pastoral-themed pattern in a single colour – usually black, blue or dark red.

Towel
An absorbent cloth used for washing or drying, for example, face washer, hand towel, bath mat, bath towel or bath sheet.

Trim
Refers to the edging on a bedding item, for example, binding, piping and cording.

Tufted
A raised loop surface created by pulling yarns into a woven background.

Tulle
Lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made netting.

Tumble Wash
Fabric treated with an enzyme-wash that ensures softness and tumble distressing that lends a worn-in, relaxed feel.

Turn Back Hem
Finished edge formed by turning part of the fabric on the side of a sewn item. Used on flat sheets and pillowcases.

Tweed
Woollen, twill-weave fabric with soft, thick-coloured yarns.

Twill
Twill is a weave that creates a diagonal effect by having the warp float on top of a few weft yarns, or vice versa.

Two Needle Finish
A small tailored border created by two lines of stitching 1cm apart. Applied after the construction of the item as a decorative finish.

Underblanket
Underblankets provide a dual purpose of protecting your valuable mattress as well as providing an additional layer of comfort and warmth.

Valance
A valance is a fitted decorative item, which covers the area around the bottom of your bed. Conventional valances are placed between the mattress and the base of the bed. Logan & Mason valances are easy to use because they wrap around the base without the need to lift the mattress. Also known as a Bed Skirt.

Velour
Velour is a fabric with a pile or napped surface resembling velvet. Similar to velvet but with a softer, sleeker nap.

Velvet
Soft, luxurious fabric with a smooth pile and a plain underside.

Velvet Burnout
A decorative velvet created by bringing the surface pile of the velvet into contact with the burnout paste. This can be used for relief effects on velvets and velour. If the back of the velvet is synthetic or protein, the pile can be totally removed by printing the burnout on the backside of the fabric.

Vermicelli Stitching
Contoured stitching that never crosses itself.

Viscose
Viscose is a soft and lightweight fabric manufactured from a plant-based material called cellulose. Typically made from woody plants such as trees and bamboo, viscose has a silk-like aesthetic and retains rich colours well.

Voile
A sheer, plain weave fabric with a crisp feel made from high twist yarns. Commonly made of cotton, silk, polyester or rayon.

Waffle
Generally this is a cotton textured fabric with a sunken weave to give a three dimensional effect in oblong or square shapes.

Warp
Warp (the vertical fibres) refers to yarns placed on a warp beam and entered into a loom.

Washing
Linens should be separated into light or dark colours. Avoid overloading the machine to prevent breaking long fibres like those in Egyptian cotton. Whether cotton, pure linen or a cotton/linen blend, bedding should be washed in cold or warm water, using a gentle laundering agent. If pre-soaking is necessary, it should be in cold water. Beware of washing powders that contain optical brighteners as these can cause fading over time in darker colours.

Waterproof
A term applied to materials that are impermeable to water; waterproof fabrics have all of their pores closed and are also impermeable to air making them uncomfortable to wear.

Weave
A system, or pattern of intersecting warp and filling yarns. There are three basic two-dimensional weaves: plain, satin and twill.

Weft
Weft (the horizontal fibres) is the yarn that traverses the warp yarns horizontally during the weaving operation. A weft is often referred to as filling.

Weight
The thickness of a fabric based on its type and how it has been woven.

Whipstitch
A simple stitch used to sew together two separate pieces of material with flat edges.

Wool
Wool is a fabric made from the hair of animals such as sheep, llamas, goats and camels. It is a resilient fabric that is resistant to wrinkling, renewed by moisture and known for its warmth. Wool is a natural
insulator. It does not conduct heat but keeps the body at an even temperature.

Woven Tape
A decorative ribbon applied to embellish a design.

Yarn
A generic term for a continuous strand of textile fibres, filaments, or material in a form suitable for knitting, weaving, braiding or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric.

Yarn Dyeing
This is when a fabric has yarns dyed prior to weaving, as opposed to the colour having been printed or dyed onto the cloth after being woven.